Fresh water has always been a limited resource in some parts of the world. Today, however, growing worldwide demand has made this a global problem. What are the causes of the increased demand and what measure could governments and individuals take to respond to this problem?
Since time immemorial, in certain drier parts of the world, fresh water has always been a scarce natural resource. However, in the present time, due to various reasons, scarcity of fresh water has become a global issue. This essay will illustrate some factors contributing to this problem and will also elicit certain steps that can help the national authorities and individuals in controlling this growing demand for natural salt free water. There are compelling reasons for shortage of fresh water. The main reason is the overpopulation in the metropolitan areas. The global phenomenon of urbanization has lead to the global surge in potable water requirement. Secondly, increased pollution of natural fresh water reserves due to urbanisation and industrialization has compounded this demand. In fact, since the beginning of industrialization, fresh water from rivers and lakes has been increasingly used for manufacturing processes such as chemical reactions, cleaning toxic equipments and so on. Furthermore, in modern times, the growing use of salt free water for activities like recreational swimming, have also catalysed the surge in global water demand. For instance, swimming pools at home, theme parks, and resorts use an avalanche of water. Therefore, water scarcity has risen and is now a global problem. National authorities, on the other hand, can control this surge by implementing public education schemes regarding controlled water usage. Strict national legislations for preventing natural fresh water reserve pollution are also required. Moreover, government should also set up infrastructure for purification of seawater into saline free water, which will help in meeting the growing requirement of fresh water. A good example is UAE where desalination plants have been used since many years to provide fresh drinking water. Similarly, public can also contribute towards this noble cause by conserving water and also by limiting their daily household water usage. They should refrain themselves from performing activities that will pollute natural fresh water reserves. Thus even though, the scarcity of fresh water is a growing global problem, there are various means and methods available, by which both the government and individuals can prevent this from worsening.